Species and subspecies: A checklist of the birds of Scotland


The Scottish List, which was last updated in April 2023, is a statement of the status of those species and subspecies known to have occurred in Scotland and its coastal waters.

The Scottish List was most recently published in full in 2011 (Forrester 2011), since when there have been nine published sets of amendments (Forrester 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021), and this update (Lewis 2023). A full explanation of the procedure for maintaining the list is given in Scottish Birds 22: 33-35.

In 1993 SOC Council delegated to The Scottish Birds Records Committee (SBRC) responsibility for maintaining the Scottish List. SBRC appointed a subcommittee to carry out this function until 2021, when responsibility was handed back to SBRC.

Recording Area

The Scottish List Recording Area follows the EU Fishery Limits as they apply to Scotland. These extend to 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the baseline surrounding Scotland's coast and its outlying islands, or the median line between Scotland and neighbouring countries, whichever is the nearest.

The map shows Scottish waters used for recording of 'at sea' records in relation to the Scottish List. The solid line marks the boundaries of the coastal waters considered by the Scottish List Subcommittee for the purposes of the Scottish List. It follows the ~370 km (200 nautical miles) of the UK Exclusive Economic Zone Limit and the UK Offshore Marine Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 2007 (UK Government 2007), except for boundaries with Northern Ireland which are instead defined in The Adjacent Waters Boundaries (Northern Ireland) Order 2002 (Marine Scotland 2017); and the territorial waters of ~22 km (12 nautical miles) around the Isle of Man. The named sea areas are shown with their boundaries indicated (R = Rockall). In reality the boundary is usually the median line between Scotland and neighbouring countries, with the 200 nautical mile limit only being reached to the west of Scotland (Bailey and Rockall), in the Atlantic Ocean. The 'at sea' limits are now revised to agree with BOU (2018).


In recent years there has been an increase in taxonomic activity, reflected in a period of instability. SBRC therefore established several principles for the original version of the Scottish List, which are still followed. The British Ornithologists' Union (BOU) has maintained the official British List since 1883 and SBRC adopts its taxonomy, sequence, and scientific and English names for the Scottish List. Similarly, species categorization follows BOU, and in no instance is a species or subspecies placed in a higher category on the Scottish List than it appears on the British List.

One of the advantages in basing the Scottish List on that used by BOU is that it is compiled in a consistent and scientific manner. A consequence of this approach is that conservation agencies can use the list, safe in the knowledge that a rigorous process was undertaken during its compilation. This may be especially important in advising on legal issues where status of an individual bird may be discussed in court. In 1998, BOU introduced a revised categorisation (British Birds 91:2-11), following consultations with the government's Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The JNCC has adopted the British List for decisions concerning the status of birds in Britain in relation to the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. The changes included a new category (Category E) for escapes and a redefining of the previous categories (A-D). The SOC adopted the new categories for the Scottish List with effect from our 2000 Report (Scottish Birds 21: 1-5). Further small changes to the definitions of Categories C and D occurred in 2002 and to Category B in 2013.

In 2007 the British Ornithologists' Union Records Committee (BOURC) adopted the standardized English names recommended by the International Ornithological Congress (IOC), now International Ornithological Union (IOU), in Birds of the World: Recommended English Names (Gill & Wright 2006) and subsequent updates. However, in respect of the British List and publications relating to the List, the BOU always uses the vernacular English name familiar to British birdwatchers, but also includes the IOU International English name when this differs. The International English names used here are those in version 12.2 of the IOC World Bird List (Gill & Donsker 2023).

In 2016 (Scottish Birds 36: 200), we reported that BOURC had disbanded its own Taxonomic Subcommittee and were reviewing global taxonomies with a view to adopting one system for all BOU activities including the British List. BOU subsequently announced that from 1 January 2018 they would adopt the International Ornithological Congress (IOC) World Bird List for all its taxonomic needs, including the British List. The British List: A Checklist of Birds of Britain (9th edition) using the new taxonomy, was published in January 2018 (BOU 2018), resulting in significant changes to the Scottish List.

The BOU website is continually updated and includes the British List, press releases and the most recent committee and taxonomic reports. The BOU's 10th Checklist provides much additional background information.

BOU has not given English names to subspecies, but the SOC has now accepted English names for many subspecies, most of which are established names used within the birding community.

Species categories

A – Species that have been recorded in an apparently natural state at least once since 1 January 1950.

B – Species that were recorded in an apparently natural state at least once between 1 January 1800 and 31 December 1949, but have not been recorded subsequently.

C – Species that although introduced now derive from the resulting self-sustaining populations. Category C has been further subdivided to differentiate between various groups of naturalised species:

  • C1 naturalised introduced species - species that have occurred only as a result of introduction, eg Little Owl.
  • C2 naturalised established species - species with established populations resulting from introduction by man, but which also occur in an apparently natural state, eg Greylag Goose.
  • C3 naturalised re-established species - species with populations successfully re-established by man in areas of former occurrence, eg Red Kite.
  • C4 naturalised feral species - domesticated species with populations established in the wild, eg Rock Dove/Feral Pigeon.
  • C5 vagrant naturalised species - species from established naturalised populations abroad, eg Mandarin Duck.
  • C6 former naturalised species - species formerly placed in C1 whose naturalised populations are either no longer self-sustaining or are considered extinct, eg Golden Pheasant.

D – Species that would otherwise appear in Category A, except that there is reasonable doubt that they have ever occurred in a natural state. Species placed only in Category D form no part of the Scottish List, and are not included in the species totals. Category D species are listed in Appendix 2.

E – Species that have been recorded as introductions, human-assisted transportees or escapees from captivity and whose breeding populations (if any) are thought not to be self-sustaining. Species in Category E that have bred in the wild in Scotland are designated as E*. Category E species form no part of the Scottish List (unless already included within Categories A, B or C).

A species is usually placed in only one category, but some are placed in multiple categories: for example those occurring in Category A that now also have naturalised populations (eg Red Kite).

The Scottish List comprises only those species in Categories A, B and C.

Species appearing in Category D, all of which have occurred in Scotland on less than an annual basis, are tabulated separately, without any further details on subspecies or status.

Status codes

Abbreviated codes are provided for status of each subspecies on the list. We previously followed the codes used by BOU in The Status of Birds in Britain and Ireland 1971, which were also used in Checklist of Birds of Britain and Ireland 6th edition (BOU 1992), but BOU revised the status codes in the 7th edition (BOU 2006), which have now also been adopted for the Scottish List:

RB – Resident breeder

MB – Migrant breeder

CB – Casual breeder

NB – Naturalized breeder

HB – Hybrid breeder

FB – Former breeder

WM – Winter migrant

PM – Passage migrant

SM – Scarce migrant

V – Vagrant

Some of these codes are only generalizations. For example, many forms listed as WM may occasionally be found in summer. With the introduction of three status codes for migrants (including that of vagrant) to replace the former two codes, for Scotland, these codes have been given 'approximate' definitions:

PM – Occurs at least annually on passage

SM – Occurs less than annually, but there have been more than c.20 records

V – There are c.20 or fewer Scottish records.

Records of species and subspecies recorded in Scotland on up to twenty occasions

A comprehensive list, updated annually, is available in tabulated form. Click here to download the list as a PDF file.


Where species are monotypic, nothing is shown in the subspecies column. If a subspecies has an established English name, this is shown.

Endemic subspecies

Subspecies endemic to Scotland are indicated in the status column.

Systematic List

Category Species English vernacular name IOU international Name (if differs from vernacular name) Scientific Species Name (binomen) Subspecies Name (where applicable) Scientific Subspecies Name Status
A,E Brent Goose Brant Goose Branta bernicla Dark-bellied bernicla PM WM
Pale-bellied hrota PM WM
Black Brant nigricans V
A,E Red-breasted Goose   Branta ruficollis   V
A,C2,E* Canada Goose   Branta canadensis Atlantic Canada Goose canadensis NB
Todd's Canada Goose/Lesser Canada Goose interior/parvipes V
A,E* Barnacle Goose   Branta leucopsis   WM
A Cackling Goose   Branta hutchinsii Richardson's Cackling Goose hutchinsii V
A,C2,E* Snow Goose   Anser caerulescens Lesser caerulescens NB WM
Greater atlanticus V
A,C2C4,E* Greylag Goose   Anser anser   anser RB NB WM
A,E* Taiga Bean Goose   Anser fabalis   fabalis WM PM
A,E* Pink-footed Goose   Anser brachyrhynchus   WM
A,E Tundra Bean Goose   Anser serrirostris   rossicus PM
A,E* White-fronted Goose Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons European albifrons PM
Greenland flavirostris WM
A,E* Lesser White-fronted Goose   Anser erythropus   V
A,C2 Mute Swan   Cygnus olor   RB
A ,E Bewick's Swan Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus   bewickii WM PM
A,E* Whooper Swan   Cygnus cygnus   CB WM
C1,C5.2,E* Egyptian Goose   Alopochen aegyptiaca   V
A Shelduck Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna   MB RB PM
B,D,E* Ruddy Shelduck   Tadorna ferruginea   SM
C1,E* Mandarin Duck   Aix galericulata   NB
A,E Baikal Teal   Sibirionetta formosa   V
A Garganey   Spatula querquedula   MB PM
A,E* Blue-winged Teal   Spatula discors   SM
A Shoveler Northern Shoveler Spatula clypeata   MB WM PM
A,C2,E* Gadwall   Mareca strepera   strepera NB RB WM PM
A, E Falcated Duck   Mareca falcata   V
A,E* Wigeon Eurasian Wigeon Mareca penelope   RB WM PM
A,E American Wigeon   Mareca americana   SM
A,C2C4,E* Mallard   Anas platyrhynchos   platyrhynchos RB WM
A Black Duck American Black Duck Anas rubripes   V
A,E Pintail Northern Pintail Anas acuta   RB/MB WM
A Teal Eurasian Teal Anas crecca   RB WM PM
A Green-winged Teal   Anas carolinensis   SM
A,C2,E* Red-crested Pochard   Netta rufina   SM
A,E Canvasback   Aythya valisineria   V
A,E* Pochard Common Pochard Aythya ferina   RB/MB WM PM
A,E Ferruginous Duck   Aythya nyroca   V
A,E Ring-necked Duck   Aythya collaris   HB? SM
A Tufted Duck   Aythya fuligula   RB MB WM PM
A Scaup Greater Scaup Aythya marila   marila CB WM PM
A Lesser Scaup   Aythya affinis   SM
A Steller's Eider   Polysticta stelleri   V
A King Eider   Somateria spectabilis   SM
A Eider Common Eider Somateria mollissima   mollissima RB WM
A Harlequin Duck   Histrionicus histrionicus   V
A Surf Scoter   Melanitta perspicillata   WM PM
A Velvet Scoter   Melanitta fusca   WM PM
A White-winged Scoter   Melanitta deglandi   V
A Common Scoter   Melanitta nigra   RB/MB WM PM
A Black Scoter   Melanitta americana   V
A Long-tailed Duck   Clangula hyemalis   WM
A,E Bufflehead   Bucephala albeola   V
A,E* Goldeneye Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula   clangula RB WM PM
A,E Barrow's Goldeneye   Bucephala islandica   V
A Smew   Mergellus albellus   WM
A Hooded Merganser   Lophodytes cucullatus   V
A Goosander Common Merganser Mergus merganser   merganser RB WM
A Red-breasted Merganser   Mergus serrator   RB WM
C1,E* Ruddy Duck   Oxyura jamaicensis   jamaicensis NB
A Red Grouse Willow Ptarmigan Lagopus lagopus   scotica RB
A Ptarmigan Rock Ptarmigan Lagopus muta   millaisi RB ENDEMIC
C3,E* Capercaillie Western Capercaillie Tetrao urogallus   urogallus FB NB
A,E Black Grouse   Lyrurus tetrix   britannicus RB
A,C2,E* Grey Partridge   Perdix perdix   perdix FB
  intraspecific hybrids as result of introductions NB
C1,E* Golden Pheasant   Chrysolophus pictus   FB
C1,E* Pheasant Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus   colchicus NB
  torquatus FNB
  intraspecific hybrids NB
A,E Quail Common Quail Coturnix coturnix   coturnix MB PM
C1,E* Red-legged Partridge   Alectoris rufa   rufa NB
A Common Nighthawk   Chordeiles minor   minor (presumed) V
A Nightjar European Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus   europaeus MB PM
A White-throated Needletail   Hirundapus caudacutus   caudacutus V
A Chimney Swift   Chaetura pelagica   V
A Alpine Swift   Tachymarptis melba   melba SM
A Swift Common Swift Apus apus   apus MB PM
A Pallid Swift   Apus pallidus   subspecies undetermined V
A Pacific Swift   Apus pacificus   subspecies undetermined V
A Little Swift   Apus affinis   galilejensis (presumed) V
A,E* Great Bustard   Otis tarda   tarda FB V
B Macqueen's Bustard   Chlamydotis macqueenii   V
A Little Bustard   Tetrax tetrax   V
A Great Spotted Cuckoo   Clamator glandarius   V
A Yellow-billed Cuckoo   Coccyzus americanus   V
A Black-billed Cuckoo   Coccyzus erythropthalmus   V
A Cuckoo Common Cuckoo Cuculus canorus   canorus MB PM
A Pallas's Sandgrouse   Syrrhaptes paradoxus   FB V
A,C4,E* Rock Dove   Columba livia   livia RB
A Stock Dove   Columba oenas   oenas RB PM WM
A Woodpigeon Common Wood Pigeon Columba palumbus   palumbus RB PM WM
A Turtle Dove European Turtle Dove Streptopelia turtur   turtur FB PM
A Oriental Turtle Dove   Streptopelia orientalis   meena V
A Collared Dove Eurasian Collared Dove Streptopelia decaocto   decaocto RB PM
A Mourning Dove   Zenaida macroura   carolinensis (presumed) V
A Water Rail   Rallus aquaticus   aquaticus RB PM WM
A,E* Corncrake Corn Crake Crex crex   MB PM
A Sora Rail Sora Porzana carolina   V
A Spotted Crake   Porzana porzana   MB (or CB) PM
A Moorhen Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus   chloropus RB WM
A Coot Eurasian Coot Fulica atra   atra RB WM
A American Coot   Fulica americana   americana V
A Allen's Gallinule   Porphyrio alleni   V
A Baillon's Crake   Zapornia pusilla   intermedia V
A Little Crake   Zapornia parva   V
A Sandhill Crane   Antigone canadensis   subspecies undetermined V
A,E* Crane Common Crane Grus grus   NB PM
A Little Grebe   Tachybaptus ruficollis   ruficollis RB MB WM
A Pied-billed Grebe   Podilymbus podiceps   podiceps (presumed) V
A Red-necked Grebe   Podiceps grisegena   grisegena CB WM
American holbollii V
A Great Crested Grebe   Podiceps cristatus   cristatus RB WM
A Slavonian Grebe Horned Grebe Podiceps auritus   auritus RB WM
A Black-necked Grebe   Podiceps nigricollis   nigricollis RB MB WM PM
A Stone-curlew Eurasian Stone-curlew Burhinus oedicnemus   oedicnemus SM
A Oystercatcher Eurasian Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus   ostralegus RB MB WM PM
A Black-winged Stilt   Himantopus himantopus   V
A,E Avocet Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta   SM
A Lapwing Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus   RB MB PM WM
A Sociable Plover Sociable Lapwing Vanellus gregarius   V
A White-tailed Plover White-tailed Lapwing Vanellus leucurus   V
A Golden Plover European Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria   RB MB WM PM
A Pacific Golden Plover   Pluvialis fulva   SM
A American Golden Plover   Pluvialis dominica   SM
A Grey Plover   Pluvialis squatarola   squatarola PM WM
A Ringed Plover Common Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticula Common hiaticula RB MB PM WM
  psammodromus PM
Tundra tundrae PM WM?
A Semipalmated Plover   Charadrius semipalmatus   V
A Little Ringed Plover   Charadrius dubius   curonicus MB PM
A Killdeer   Charadrius vociferus   vociferus V
A Kentish Plover   Charadrius alexandrinus   alexandrinus SM
A Lesser Sand Plover   Charadrius mongolus   mongolus/stegmanni V
A Greater Sand Plover   Charadrius leschenaultii   subspecies undetermined V
A Caspian Plover   Charadrius asiaticus   V
A Dotterel Eurasian Dotterel Charadrius morinellus   MB PM
A Upland Sandpiper   Bartramia longicauda   V
A Whimbrel   Numenius phaeopus   islandicus MB PM
  phaeopus PM
A Hudsonian Whimbrel   Numenius hudsonicus   subspecies undetermined V
B Eskimo Curlew   Numenius borealis   V
A Curlew Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata   arquata RB MB PM WM
A Bar-tailed Godwit   Limosa lapponica   lapponica PM WM
A Black-tailed Godwit   Limosa limosa Continental limosa V
Icelandic islandica MB PM WM
A Hudsonian Godwit   Limosa haemastica   V
A Turnstone Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres   interpres PM WM
A Great Knot   Calidris tenuirostris   V
A Knot Red Knot Calidris canutus   islandica PM WM
A Ruff   Calidris pugnax   CB PM WM
A Broad-billed Sandpiper   Calidris falcinellus   falcinellus SM
A Sharp-tailed Sandpiper   Calidris acuminata   V
A Stilt Sandpiper   Calidris himantopus   V
A Curlew Sandpiper   Calidris ferruginea   PM WM
A Temminck's Stint   Calidris temminckii   CB PM
A Red-necked Stint   Calidris ruficollis   V
A Sanderling   Calidris alba   alba PM WM
A Dunlin   Calidris alpina Northern alpina PM WM
Southern schinzii MB PM
Greenland arctica PM
A Purple Sandpiper   Calidris maritima   CB PM WM
A Baird's Sandpiper   Calidris bairdii   SM
A Little Stint   Calidris minuta   PM
A Least Sandpiper   Calidris minutilla   V
A White-rumped Sandpiper   Calidris fuscicollis   PM
A Buff-breasted Sandpiper   Calidris subruficollis   PM
A Pectoral Sandpiper   Calidris melanotos   PM
A Semipalmated Sandpiper   Calidris pusilla   SM
A Western Sandpiper   Calidris mauri   V
A Long-billed Dowitcher   Limnodromus scolopaceus   SM
A Short-billed Dowitcher   Limnodromus griseus   subspecies undetermined V
A Woodcock Eurasian Woodcock Scolopax rusticola   RB MB PM WM
A Jack Snipe   Lymnocryptes minimus   PM WM
A Great Snipe   Gallinago media   SM
A Snipe Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago Common gallinago RB MB PM WM
Faeroe faeroeensis RB MB PM WM
A Terek Sandpiper   Xenus cinereus   V
A Wilson's Phalarope   Phalaropus tricolor   SM
A Red-necked Phalarope   Phalaropus lobatus   MB PM
A Grey Phalarope Red Phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius   PM WM
A Common Sandpiper   Actitis hypoleucos   MB PM WM
A Spotted Sandpiper   Actitis macularius   CB SM
A Green Sandpiper   Tringa ochropus   CB PM WM
A Solitary Sandpiper   Tringa solitaria   subspecies undetermined V
A Grey-tailed Tattler   Tringa brevipes   V
A Lesser Yellowlegs   Tringa flavipes   SM
A Redshank Common Redshank Tringa totanus European totanus RB MB PM WM
Icelandic robusta PM WM
A Marsh Sandpiper   Tringa stagnatilis   V
A Wood Sandpiper   Tringa glareola   CB PM
A Spotted Redshank   Tringa erythropus   PM WM
A Greenshank Common Greenshank Tringa nebularia   RB MB PM WM
A Greater Yellowlegs   Tringa melanoleuca   V
A Cream-coloured Courser Cream-colored Courser Cursorius cursor   cursor V
A Collared Pratincole   Glareola pratincola   pratincola V
A Black-winged Pratincole   Glareola nordmanni   V
A Kittiwake Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla   tridactyla RB MB PM WM
A Ivory Gull   Pagophila eburnea   SM
A Sabine's Gull   Xema sabini   PM
A Bonaparte's Gull   Chroicocephalus philadelphia   SM
A Black-headed Gull Common Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus   RB MB PM WM
A Little Gull   Hydrocoloeus minutus   PM WM
A Ross's Gull   Rhodostethia rosea   SM
A Laughing Gull   Leucophaeus atricilla   subspecies undetermined SM
A Franklin's Gull   Leucophaeus pipixcan   V
A Mediterranean Gull   Ichthyaetus melanocephalus   PM WM
A Common Gull Mew Gull Larus canus   canus RB MB PM WM
A Ring-billed Gull   Larus delawarensis   HB SM WM
A Great Black-backed Gull   Larus marinus   RB PM WM
A Glaucous-winged Gull   Larus glaucescens   V
A Glaucous Gull   Larus hyperboreus   hyperboreus PM WM
A Iceland Gull   Larus glaucoides   glaucoides PM WM
Kumlien's kumlieni SM
Thayer's thayeri V
A Herring Gull European Herring Gull Larus argentatus Scandinavian argentatus PM WM
Western argenteus RB PM WM
A American Herring Gull   Larus smithsonianus   V
A Caspian Gull   Larus cachinnans   V
A Yellow-legged Gull   Larus michahellis   michahellis SM
Azorean Yellow-legged Gull atlantis V
A Lesser Black-backed Gull   Larus fuscus Western graellsii RB MB PM WM
Continental intermedius PM WM
A Gull-billed Tern   Gelochelidon nilotica   nilotica V
A Caspian Tern   Hydroprogne caspia   SM
A Royal Tern   Thalasseus maximus   V
A Lesser Crested Tern   Thalasseus bengalensis   emigratus V
A Sandwich Tern   Thalasseus sandvicensis   MB PM
A Little Tern   Sternula albifrons   albifrons MB PM
A Bridled Tern   Onychoprion anaethetus   subspecies undetermined V
A Sooty Tern   Onychoprion fuscatus   fuscatus V
A Roseate Tern   Sterna dougallii   dougallii MB PM
A Common Tern   Sterna hirundo   hirundo MB PM
A Arctic Tern   Sterna paradisaea   MB PM
A Forster's Tern   Sterna forsteri   V
A Whiskered Tern   Chlidonias hybrida   hybrida V
A White-winged Black Tern White-winged Tern Chlidonias leucopterus   SM
A Black Tern   Chlidonias niger   niger PM
American surinamensis V
A Great Skua   Stercorarius skua   MB PM
A Pomarine Skua Pomarine Jaeger Stercorarius pomarinus   PM WM
A Arctic Skua Parasitic Jaeger Stercorarius parasiticus   MB PM
A Long-tailed Skua Long-tailed Jaeger Stercorarius longicaudus   longicaudus CB PM
A Little Auk   Alle alle   alle PM WM
Franz Josef Land polaris V
A Brünnich's Guillemot Thick-billed Murre Uria lomvia   lomvia (presumed) SM
A Common Guillemot Common Murre Uria aalge Northern aalge RB MB WM
Southern albionis RB MB WM
A Razorbill   Alca torda British islandica RB MB WM
Northern torda WM
B Great Auk   Pinguinus impennis   Extinct FB
A Black Guillemot   Cepphus grylle   arcticus RB
A Puffin Atlantic Puffin Fratercula arctica   RB MB PM WM
A Red-throated Diver Red-throated Loon Gavia stellata   MB RB WM PM
A Black-throated Diver Black-throated Loon Gavia arctica   arctica MB RB WM
A Pacific Diver Pacific Loon Gavia pacifica   V
A Great Northern Diver Common Loon Gavia immer   CB WM
A White-billed Diver Yellow-billed Loon Gavia adamsii   SM
A Wilson's Petrel Wilson's Storm Petrel Oceanites oceanicus   subspecies undetermined V
B White-faced Storm Petrel   Pelagodroma marina   hypoleuca V
A Black-browed Albatross   Thalassarche melanophris   V
A Storm Petrel European Storm Petrel Hydrobates pelagicus   pelagicus MB PM
A Swinhoe's Petrel Swinhoe's Storm Petrel Oceanodroma monorhis   V
A Leach's Petrel Leach's Storm Petrel Oceanodroma leucorhoa   leucorhoa MB PM
A Fulmar Northern Fulmar Fulmarus glacialis   glacialis RB MB PM
A White-chinned Petrel   Procellaria aequinoctialis   V
A Scopoli's Shearwater   Calonectris diomedia   V
A Cory's Shearwater   Calonectris borealis   PM
A Sooty Shearwater   Ardenna grisea   PM
A Great Shearwater   Ardenna gravis   PM
A Manx Shearwater   Puffinus puffinus   MB PM
A Balearic Shearwater   Puffinus mauretanicus   PM
A Barolo Shearwater   Puffinus baroli   V
A,E Black Stork   Ciconia nigra   V
A,E White Stork   Ciconia ciconia   ciconia FB SM
A Ascension Frigatebird   Fregata aquila   V
A Gannet Northern Gannet Morus bassanus   MB RB PM
A Cormorant Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo Atlantic carbo RB MB
Continental sinensis SM
A Shag European Shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis   aristotelis RB
A,E Glossy Ibis   Plegadis falcinellus   SM
A,E Spoonbill Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia   leucorodia CB SM
A Bittern Eurasian Bittern Botaurus stellaris   stellaris FB PM
A American Bittern   Botaurus lentiginosus   V
A Little Bittern   Ixobrychus minutus   minutus SM
A,E* Night-heron Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax   nycticorax SM
A Green Heron   Butorides virescens   virescens (presumed) V
A Squacco Heron   Ardeola ralloides   V
A,E Cattle Egret Western Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis   V
A Grey Heron   Ardea cinerea   cinerea RB WM
A Purple Heron   Ardea purpurea   purpurea SM
A Great White Egret Great Egret Ardea alba   alba PM
A Snowy Egret   Egretta thula   subspecies undetermined V
A Little Egret   Egretta garzetta   garzetta PM
A,E* Osprey   Pandion haliaetus   haliaetus MB PM
A Honey-buzzard European Honey Buzzard Pernis apivorus   MB PM
A Short-toed Eagle Short-toed Snake Eagle Circaetus gallicus   V
A,E Golden Eagle   Aquila chrysaetos   chrysaetos RB
A Sparrowhawk Eurasian Sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus   nisus RB PM WM?
A,C3,E Goshawk Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis   gentilis FB NB PM
A Marsh Harrier Western Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus   aeruginosus MB PM WM?
A Hen Harrier   Circus cyaneus   RB MB PM WM
A Northern Harrier   Circus hudsonius   V
A Pallid Harrier   Circus macrourus   SM
A Montagu's Harrier   Circus pygargus   CB PM
A,C3,E* Red Kite   Milvus milvus   milvus FB NB HB WM PM
A,E Black Kite   Milvus migrans   migrans HB SM
A,C3,E* White-tailed Eagle   Haliaeetus albicilla   albicilla FB NB SM
A Long-legged Buzzard   Buteo rufinus   rufinus V
A,E Rough-legged Buzzard   Buteo lagopus   lagopus WM PM
A,E* Buzzard Common Buzzard Buteo buteo   buteo RB PM?
A,E* Barn Owl Western Barn Owl Tyto alba   alba RB
Dark-breasted guttata SM
A Tengmalm's Owl Boreal Owl Aegolius funereus   funereus V
C1,E* Little Owl   Athene noctua   vidalii CB SM
A Hawk Owl Northern Hawk-Owl Surnia ulula European ulula V
A Scops Owl Eurasian Scops Owl Otus scops   scops SM
A Long-eared Owl   Asio otus   otus RB PM WM
A Short-eared Owl   Asio flammeus   flammeus RB MB PM WM
A,E Snowy Owl   Bubo scandiacus   CB SM
A Tawny Owl   Strix aluco   sylvatica RB
A,E Hoopoe Eurasian Hoopoe Upupa epops   epops PM
A Roller European Roller Coracias garrulus   garrulus SM
A Kingfisher Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis   ispida RB
A Belted Kingfisher   Megaceryle alcyon   V
A Blue-cheeked Bee-eater   Merops persicus   persicus V
A Bee-eater European Bee-eater Merops apiaster   CB SM
A Wryneck Eurasian Wryneck Jynx torquilla   torquilla CB PM
A Lesser Spotted Woodpecker   Dryobates minor   subspecies undetermined V
A Great Spotted Woodpecker   Dendrocopos major Northern major PM WM
British anglicus RB
A Green Woodpecker European Green Woodpecker Picus viridis   viridis RB
A Lesser Kestrel   Falco naumanni   V
A Kestrel Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus   tinnunculus RB MB PM WM
A,E American Kestrel   Falco sparverius   sparverius V
A Red-footed Falcon   Falco vespertinus   SM
A Eleonora's Falcon   Falco eleonorae   V
A Merlin   Falco columbarius   aesalon RB MB PM WM
Icelandic subaesalon PM WM
Taiga columbarius V
A Hobby Eurasian Hobby Falco subbuteo   subbuteo MB PM
A,E Gyr Falcon Gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus   SM
A,E Peregrine Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus   peregrinus RB WM PM
C1,E Ring-necked Parakeet Rose-ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri   naturalised birds show characters of borealis and manillensis NB
A Yellow-bellied Flycatcher   Empidonax flaviventris   V
A Eastern Kingbird   Tyrannus tyrannus   V
A Brown Shrike   Lanius cristatus   cristatus V
A Red-backed Shrike   Lanius collurio   CB PM
A Daurian Shrike Isabelline Shrike Lanius isabellinus   isabellinus SM
A Turkestan Shrike Red-tailed shrike Lanius phoenicuroides    
A Long-tailed Shrike   Lanius schach   subspecies undetermined V
A Lesser Grey Shrike   Lanius minor   SM
A Great Grey Shrike   Lanius excubitor   excubitor WM PM
Steppe Grey pallidrostris V
A Woodchat Shrike   Lanius senator   senator PM
Balearic badius V
A Masked Shrike   Lanius nubicus   V
A Red-eyed Vireo   Vireo olivaceus   olivaceus (presumed) V
A Golden Oriole Eurasian Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus   PM
A Jay Eurasian Jay Garrulus glandarius   rufitergum RB
A Magpie Eurasian Magpie Pica pica   pica RB
A Nutcracker Spotted Nutcracker Nucifraga caryocatactes   macrorhynchos V
A,E Chough Red-billed Chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax   pyrrhocorax RB
A Jackdaw Western Jackdaw Coloeus monedula Nordic monedula WM
Western spermologus RB WM
A Rook   Corvus frugilegus   frugilegus RB WM
A Carrion Crow   Corvus corone   corone RB WM
A Hooded Crow   Corvus cornix   cornix RB WM
A Raven Northern Raven Corvus corax   corax RB
A,E Waxwing Bohemian Waxwing Bombycilla garrulus   garrulus WM
A,E Cedar Waxwing   Bombycilla cedrorum   V
A Coal Tit   Periparus ater Continental ater SM
British britannicus RB
A Crested Tit   Lophophanes cristatus   scoticus RB ENDEMIC
A Marsh Tit   Poecile palustris   dresseri RB
A Willow Tit   Poecile montanus   kleinschmidti RB
A Blue Tit Eurasian Blue Tit Cyanistes caeruleus Continental caeruleus SM
British obscurus RB
A Great Tit   Parus major Continental major PM WM
British newtoni RB
A Bearded Tit Bearded Reedling Panurus biarmicus   biarmicus RB SM
A Woodlark   Lullula arborea   arborea SM WM
A Skylark Eurasian Skylark Alauda arvensis   arvensis RB MB PM WM
A,E Crested Lark   Galerida cristata   cristata V
A Shore Lark Horned Lark Eremophila alpestris   flava CB WM PM
North American Horned Lark alpestris/praticola/hoyti V
A Short-toed Lark Greater Short-toed Lark Calandrella brachydactyla   subspecies undetermined PM
A Bimaculated Lark   Melanocorypha bimaculata   V
A Calandra Lark   Melanocorypha calandra   subspecies undetermined V
A Sand Martin   Riparia riparia   riparia MB PM
A Tree Swallow   Tachycineta bicolor   V
A Purple Martin   Progne subis   subis (presumed) V
A Crag Martin Eurasian Crag Martin Ptyonoprogne rupestris   V
A,E Swallow Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica   rustica MB PM
A House Martin Common House Martin Delichon urbicum   urbicum MB PM
A Red-rumped Swallow   Cecropis daurica   rufula SM
  daurica/japonica V
A Cliff Swallow American Cliff Swallow Petrochelidon pyrrhonota   subspecies undetermined V
A Cetti's Warbler   Cettia cetti   cetti V
A Long-tailed Tit   Aegithalos caudatus   caudatus V
British Long-tailed Tit rosaceus RB
A Wood Warbler   Phylloscopus sibilatrix   MB PM
A Western Bonelli's Warbler   Phylloscopus bonelli   V
A Eastern Bonelli's Warbler   Phylloscopus orientalis   V
A Hume's Warbler Hume's Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus humei   humei (presumed) SM
A Yellow-browed Warbler   Phylloscopus inornatus   PM
A Pallas's Warbler Pallas's Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus proregulus   PM
A Radde's Warbler   Phylloscopus schwarzi   SM
A Dusky Warbler   Phylloscopus fuscatus   fuscatus PM
A Willow Warbler   Phylloscopus trochilus   trochilus MB PM
Northern acredula MB? PM
A Chiffchaff Common Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita   collybita MB PM WM
Scandinavian abietinus PM WM
Siberian tristis PM WM
A Iberian Chiffchaff   Phylloscopus ibericus   V
A Green Warbler   Phylloscopus nitidus   V
A Two-barred Greenish Warbler Two-barred Warbler Phylloscopus plumbeitarsus   V
A Greenish Warbler   Phylloscopus trochiloides   viridanus SM
A Arctic Warbler   Phylloscopus borealis   borealis (presumed) SM
A Great Reed Warbler   Acrocephalus arundinaceus   arundinaceus SM
A Aquatic Warbler   Acrocephalus paludicola   SM
A Sedge Warbler   Acrocephalus schoenobaenus   MB PM
A Paddyfield Warbler   Acrocephalus agricola   septimus (presumed) SM
A Blyth's Reed Warbler   Acrocephalus dumetorum   PM
A Reed Warbler Common Reed Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus   scirpaceus MB PM
Caspian fuscus V
A Marsh Warbler   Acrocephalus palustris   CB PM
A Thick-billed Warbler   Iduna aedon   aedon (presumed) V
A Booted Warbler   Iduna caligata   SM
A Sykes's Warbler   Iduna rama   V
A Eastern Olivaceous Warbler   Iduna pallida   elaeica V
A Olive-tree Warbler   Hippolais olivetorum   V
A Melodious Warbler   Hippolais polyglotta   SM
A Icterine Warbler   Hippolais icterina   CB PM
A Pallas's Grasshopper Warbler   Helopsaltes certhiola   rubescens SM
A Lanceolated Warbler   Locustella lanceolata   lanceolata (presumed) SM
A River Warbler   Locustella fluviatilis   SM
A Savi's Warbler   Locustella luscinioides   luscinioides V
A Grasshopper Warbler Common Grasshopper Warbler Locustella naevia   naevia MP PM
Eastern straminea V
A Blackcap Eurasian Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla   atricapilla MB PM WM
A Garden Warbler   Sylvia borin   borin MB PM
A Barred Warbler   Curruca nisoria   nisoria PM
A Lesser Whitethroat   Curruca curruca   curruca MB PM
Siberian blythi PM
Central Asian halimodendri V
A Western Orphean Warbler   Curruca hortensis   hortensis (presumed) V
A Rüppell's Warbler   Curruca ruppeli   V
A Sardinian Warbler   Curruca melanocephala   melanocephala V
A Western Subalpine Warbler   Curruca iberiae   V
A Moltoni's Subalpine Warbler Moltoni's Warbler Curruca subalpina   V
A Eastern Subalpine Warbler   Curruca cantillans   cantillans V
A Whitethroat Common Whitethroat Curruca communis   communis MB PM
A Marmora's Warbler   Curruca sarda   V
A Dartford Warbler   Curruca undata   subspecies undetermined V
A Ruby-crowned Kinglet   Corthylio calendula   V
A Firecrest Common Firecrest Regulus ignicapilla   ignicapilla PM WM
A Goldcrest   Regulus regulus   regulus RB PM WM
A Wren Eurasian Wren Troglodytes troglodytes European troglodytes PM
Shetland zetlandicus RB ENDEMIC
Fair Isle fridariensis RB ENDEMIC
Hebridean hebridensis RB ENDEMIC
St Kilda hirtensis RB ENDEMIC
British indigenus RB
A Nuthatch Eurasian Nuthatch Sitta europaea   caesia RB
A Treecreeper Eurasian Treecreeper Certhia familiaris Northern familiaris V
British britannica RB
A,E Rose-coloured Starling Rosy Starling Pastor roseus   SM
A Starling Common Starling Sturnus vulgaris   vulgaris RB WM PM
Shetland zetlandicus RB ENDEMIC
A Varied Thrush   Ixoreus naevius   subspecies undetermined V
A Swainson's Thrush   Catharus ustulatus   subspecies undetermined V
A Hermit Thrush   Catharus guttatus   faxoni (presumed) V
A Grey-cheeked Thrush   Catharus minimus   subspecies undetermined V
A Veery   Catharus fuscescens   subspecies undetermined V
A White's Thrush   Zoothera aurea   aurea SM
A,E Siberian Thrush   Geokichla sibirica   subspecies undetermined V
A Song Thrush   Turdus philomelos Continental philomelos PM WV
British clarkei RB MB
Hebridean hebridensis RB MB? ENDEMIC
A Mistle Thrush   Turdus viscivorus   viscivorus RB MB? PM WM
A Redwing   Turdus iliacus Continental iliacus CB WM PM
Icelandic coburni CB? WM PM
A Blackbird Common Blackbird Turdus merula   merula RB MB? PM WM
A Eyebrowed Thrush   Turdus obscurus   V
A Fieldfare   Turdus pilaris   CB WM PM
A Ring Ouzel   Turdus torquatus   torquatus MB PM
A Black-throated Thrush   Turdus atrogularis   SM
A Dusky Thrush   Turdus eunomus   V
A American Robin   Turdus migratorius   migratorius V
A Spotted Flycatcher   Muscicapa striata   striata MB PM
A Asian Brown Flycatcher   Muscicapa dauurica   dauurica V
A Robin European Robin Erithacus rubecula Continental rubecula CB PV WM?
British melophilus RB MB
A Siberian Blue Robin   Larvivora cyane   bochaiensis (presumed) V
A Rufous-tailed Robin   Larvivora sibilans   subspecies undetermined V
A Bluethroat   Luscinia svecica Red-spotted svecica CB PM
White-spotted cyanecula SM
A Thrush Nightingale   Luscinia luscinia   SM
A Nightingale Common Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos   megarhynchos SM
Eastern golzii V
A Siberian Rubythroat   Calliope calliope   calliope (presumed) V
A,E Red-flanked Bluetail   Tarsiger cyanurus   SM
A Taiga Flycatcher   Ficedula albicilla   V
A Red-breasted Flycatcher   Ficedula parva   PM
A Pied Flycatcher European Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca   hypoleuca MB PM
A Collared Flycatcher   Ficedula albicollis   SM
A Black Redstart   Phoenicurus ochruros   gibraltariensis CB PM WM
Eastern phoenicuroides/rufiventris V
A Redstart Common Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus   phoenicurus MB PM
A Rock Thrush Common Rock Thrush Monticola saxatilis   V
A,E Blue Rock Thrush   Monticola solitarius   subspecies undetermined V
A Whinchat   Saxicola rubetra   MB PM
A Stonechat European Stonechat Saxicola rubicola British hibernans RB MB
A Siberian Stonechat   Saxicola maurus   maurus V
Caspian hemprichii V
A Stejneger's Stonechat Amur Stonechat Saxicola stejnegeri   V
A Wheatear Northern Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe   oenanthe MB PM
Greenland leucorhoa PM
A Isabelline Wheatear   Oenanthe isabellina   V
A Desert Wheatear   Oenanthe deserti   undetermined SM
Levant deserti V
Western homochroa V
A Western Black-eared Wheatear   Oenanthe hispanica   V
A Eastern Black-eared Wheatear   Oenanthe melanoleuca   V
A Pied Wheatear   Oenanthe pleschanka   SM
A Dipper White-throated Dipper Cinclus cinclus Black-bellied cinclus SM
British gularis RB
Irish hibernicus RB
A Tree Sparrow Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus   montanus RB PM
A Spanish Sparrow   Passer hispaniolensis   hispaniolensis (presumed) V
A House Sparrow   Passer domesticus   domesticus RB
A Alpine Accentor   Prunella collaris   collaris V
A Siberian Accentor   Prunella montanella   subspecies undetermined V
A Dunnock   Prunella modularis Continental modularis PM WM
Hebridean hebridium RB
British occidentalis RB
A Yellow Wagtail Western Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava Blue-headed flava CB PM
Yellow flavissima MB PM
Grey-headed thunbergi CB PM
Black-headed feldegg V
A Eastern Yellow Wagtail   Motacilla tschutschensis   subspecies undetermined V
A Citrine Wagtail   Motacilla citreola   citreola SM
A Grey Wagtail   Motacilla cinerea   cinerea RB MB PM
A Pied Wagtail White Wagtail Motacilla alba White alba CB PM
Pied yarrellii MB RB
East Siberian ocularis V
A Richard's Pipit   Anthus richardi   PM
A Blyth's Pipit   Anthus godlewskii   V
A Tawny Pipit   Anthus campestris   SM
A Meadow Pipit   Anthus pratensis   MB RB PM
A Tree Pipit   Anthus trivialis   trivialis MB PM
A Olive-backed Pipit   Anthus hodgsoni   yunnanensis PM
A Pechora Pipit   Anthus gustavi   gustavi SM
A Red-throated Pipit   Anthus cervinus   PM
A Buff-bellied Pipit   Anthus rubescens   rubescens V
A Water Pipit   Anthus spinoletta   spinoletta PM WM
A Rock Pipit Eurasian Rock Pipit Anthus petrosus British petrosus RB
Scandinavian littoralis PM WM
A,E Chaffinch Common Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs Continental coelebs WM PM
British gengleri RB
A Brambling   Fringilla montifringilla   CB WM
A Evening Grosbeak   Hesperiphona vespertina   vespertina (presumed) V
A Hawfinch   Coccothraustes coccothraustes   coccothraustes RB PM
A,E Pine Grosbeak   Pinicola enucleator   enucleator V
A Bullfinch Eurasian Bullfinch Pyrrhula pyrrhula Northern pyrrhula PM
British pileata RB
A,E Trumpeter Finch   Bucanetes githagineus   subspecies undetermined V
A Common Rosefinch   Carpodacus erythrinus   erythrinus CB PM
A,E Greenfinch European Greenfinch Chloris chloris   chloris RB WM
A Twite   Linaria flavirostris   pipilans RB MB
A Linnet Common Linnet Linaria cannabina Eurasian cannabina CB? PM
Scottish autochthona RB MB ENDEMIC
A Common Redpoll   Acanthis flammea Mealy flammea WM PM
Greater rostrata PM
A Lesser Redpoll   Acanthis cabaret   RB MB
A Arctic Redpoll   Acanthis hornemanni Hornemann's hornemanni SM
Coues's exilipes SM
A Parrot Crossbill   Loxia pytyopsittacus   RB SM
A Scottish Crossbill   Loxia scotica   RB ENDEMIC
A Crossbill Red Crossbill Loxia curvirostra   curvirostra RB MB WM PM
A Two-barred Crossbill   Loxia leucoptera   bifasciata SM
A Goldfinch European Goldfinch Carduelis carduelis   britannica RB WM
A Citril Finch   Carduelis citrinella   V
A Serin European Serin Serinus serinus   V
A Siskin Eurasian Siskin Spinus spinus   RB MB WM PM
A Lapland Bunting Lapland Longspur Calcarius lapponicus   lapponicus CB PM WM
  subcalcaratus PM WV
A Snow Bunting   Plectrophenax nivalis   nivalis RB PM WM
Icelandic insulae RB PM WM
A Corn Bunting   Emberiza calandra   calandra RB PM WM
A Yellowhammer   Emberiza citrinella Continental citrinella PM
Western caliginosa RB
A Pine Bunting   Emberiza leucocephalos   leucocephalos V
A,E Ortolan Bunting   Emberiza hortulana   PM
A Cretzschmar's Bunting   Emberiza caesia   V
A Cirl Bunting   Emberiza cirlus   V
A Chestnut-eared Bunting   Emberiza fucata   fucata V
A Little Bunting   Emberiza pusilla   PM
A Yellow-browed Bunting   Emberiza chrysophrys   V
A Rustic Bunting   Emberiza rustica   PM
A Yellow-breasted Bunting   Emberiza aureola   aureola SM
A Chestnut Bunting   Emberiza rutila   V
A,E Black-headed Bunting   Emberiza melanocephala   SM
A Black-faced Bunting   Emberiza spodocephala   spodocephala (presumed) V
A Pallas's Reed Bunting   Emberiza pallasi   polaris (presumed) V
A Reed Bunting Common Reed Bunting Emberiza schoeniclus   schoeniclus RB PM WM
A,E Dark-eyed Junco   Junco hyemalis   hyemalis V
A,E White-crowned Sparrow   Zonotrichia leucophrys   leucophrys V
A,E White-throated Sparrow   Zonotrichia albicollis   V
A Savannah Sparrow   Passerculus sandwichensis   labradorius V
A,E Song Sparrow   Melospiza melodia   subspecies undetermined V
A Bobolink   Dolichonyx oryzivorus   V
A,E Baltimore Oriole   Icterus galbula   V
A,E Red-winged Blackbird   Agelaius phoeniceus   subspecies undetermined V
A Brown-headed Cowbird   Molothrus ater   subspecies undetermined V
A Ovenbird   Seiurus aurocapilla   aurocapilla V
A Black-and-white Warbler   Mniotilta varia   V
A Tennessee Warbler   Leiothlypis peregrina   V
A Common Yellowthroat   Geothlypis trichas   subspecies undetermined V
A Hooded Warbler   Setophaga citrina   V
A,E American Redstart   Setophaga ruticilla   V
A,E Cape May Warbler   Setophaga tigrina   V
A Northern Parula   Setophaga americana   V
A,E Magnolia Warbler   Setophaga magnolia   V
A Blackburnian Warbler   Setophaga fusca   V
A Yellow Warbler American Yellow Warbler Setophaga aestiva   aestiva V
A Chestnut-sided Warbler   Setophaga pensylvanica   V
A,E Blackpoll Warbler   Setophaga striata   V
A Yellow-rumped Warbler Myrtle Warbler Setophaga coronata   coronata (presumed) V
A Wilson's Warbler   Cardellina pusilla   pusilla (presumed) V
A Scarlet Tanager   Piranga olivacea   V
A Rose-breasted Grosbeak   Pheucticus ludovicianus   V


Category A 539
Category B 5
Category C 9
Category A/B/C 553
Category D 10

APPENDIX 1: Species groups not included in the systematic list

Records for the following species groups cannot safely be identified to species level and thus do not form part of the species totals:

A Zino's Petrel (Madeira Petrel)/Fea's Petrel/ Desertas Petrel   Pterodroma madeira/Pterodroma feae/Pterodroma deserta     V
A Western Orphean Warbler or Eastern Orphean Warbler   Curruca hortensis/Curruca crassirostris     V

APPENDIX 2: Category D

Category D does not form any part of the Scottish List and is included here for information only.

Category Species name Scientific species name (binomen)
D,E* Ross's Goose Anser rossii
D Wood Duck Aix sponsa
D Falcated Duck Mareca falcata
D Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus
D,E White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus
D Booted Eagle Hieraaetus pennatus
D Saker Falcon Falco cherrug
D Daurian Starling Agropsar sturninus
D,E Yellow-headed Blackbird Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus
D Red-headed Bunting Emberiza bruniceps


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British Ornithologists' Union (BOU). 1992. Checklist of Birds of Britain and Ireland. 6th Edition. London: Helm Information Ltd.

British Ornithologists' Union (BOU). 2006. The British List: A Checklist of Birds of Britain (7th edition). Ibis 148: 526-563.

British Ornithologists' Union (BOU). 2013. The British List: A Checklist of Birds of Britain (8th edition). Ibis 155: 635-676.

British Ornithologists' Union (BOU). 2018. The British List: A Checklist of Birds of Britain (9th edition). Ibis 160: 190-240.

British Ornithologists' Union (BOU). 2022. The British List: A Checklist of Birds of Britain (10th edition). Ibis 164: 860–910.

British Ornithologists' Union (BOU). 2022. British Ornithologists' Union Records Committee (BOURC): 54th Report (July 2022). Ibis 164: 929-931.

British Ornithologists' Union (BOU). 2023. British Ornithologists' Union Records Committee (BOURC): 55th Report (January 2023). Ibis 165: 360-363.

Forrester, RW on behalf of Scottish List Subcommittee, Scottish Birds Records Committee 2011. The Scottish List. The official list of birds recorded in Scotland. Scottish Birds 31: Supplement 1.

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Forrester, RW on behalf of Scottish List Subcommittee, Scottish Birds Records Committee 2014. Amendments to the Scottish List: species and subspecies. Scottish Birds 34: 211-217.

Forrester, RW on behalf of Scottish List Subcommittee, Scottish Birds Records Committee 2015. Amendments to the Scottish List: species and subspecies. Scottish Birds 35: 195-198.

Forrester, RW on behalf of Scottish List Subcommittee, Scottish Birds Records Committee 2016. Amendments to the Scottish List: species and subspecies. Scottish Birds 36: 199-202.

Forrester, RW on behalf of Scottish List Subcommittee, Scottish Birds Records Committee 2017. Amendments to the Scottish List: species and subspecies. Scottish Birds 37: 202-204.

Forrester, RW on behalf of Scottish List Subcommittee, Scottish Birds Records Committee 2018. Amendments to the Scottish List: species and subspecies. Scottish Birds 38: 232-238.

Forrester, RW on behalf of Scottish List Subcommittee, Scottish Birds Records Committee 2019. Amendments to the Scottish List: species and subspecies. Scottish Birds 39: 200-201.

Forrester, RW on behalf of Scottish List Subcommittee, Scottish Birds Records Committee 2020. Amendments to the Scottish List: species and subspecies. Scottish Birds 40: 212-215.

Forrester, RW on behalf of Scottish List Subcommittee, Scottish Birds Records Committee 2021. Amendments to the Scottish List: species and subspecies. Scottish Birds 41: 291-294.

Lewis, M on behalf of the Scottish Birds Records Committee 2023. www.the-soc.org.uk/bird-recording/the-scottish-list

Gill, F & Donsker, D. (Eds). 2023. IOC World Bird List (version 12.2).

Gill, F & Wright, M on behalf of the International Ornithological Congress. 2006. Birds of the World: recommended English names. Christopher Helm, London.

Marine Scotland. 2017. Northern Ireland Zone

UK Government. 2007. The Offshore Marine Conservation (Natural Habitats, &c.) Regulations 2007

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